The Zoraptera are a very small order of insects, there are about 30 known species.
They are also small in size, being less than 3 mm long. They are hemimetabolous, have biting mouthparts, are very short, have 1 segmented cerci and 9 segmented antennae.
Zoraptera are generally found under bark or in humus and leaf-litter. They are unusual in that each species comes in 2 different forms, one of which is ‘alate’ (has wings) and the other is ‘apterous’, i.e. doesn’t have wings. The apterous form is the more common, generally white in color and has no compound eyes or ocelli. Whereas the alate forms have both compound eyes and ocelli, and are more pigmented.
Though less than 3 mm long, an alate Zorapteran can have a total wingspan of about 7mm. Another interesting thing is that, like their relatives the Termites (Isoptera), they can voluntarily shed their wings.
Though little is known about the biology of Zorapterans, it is known that 2 forms of nymphs occurr that equate with the 2 different life-forms. They are usually found in rotting timber and/or sawdust, well composted leaf-litter and Termite nests.
They feed on fungal spores and smaller arthropods. The name Zoraptera comes from the Greek words “zor” meaning pure and “aptera” meaning wingless (they were named before the winged forms were discovered).
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- A new Kansas record for Zoraptera.; Urrelo R., Rice M. E. and Blocker H. D.; Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 1987, vol.60, no.1, p.153
- Grooming behavior in Embioptera and Zoraptera (Insecta).; Valentine B. D.; Ohio Journal of Science, 1986, vol.86, no.4, pp.150-152
- Biological observations on Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell (Zoraptera); Shetlar,D.J.; Entomol. News, 1978 Vol. 89(9-10), 217-223
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- A synopsis of the order Zoraptera with notes on the biology of Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell.; Gurney, A.B.; Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 1938. 40: 57-87.
- Evidences of relationship indicated by the venation of the forewings of certain insects with special reference to the Hemiptera-Homoptera.; Crampton, G. C.; Psyche, 1922. 29: 23-41.
- Zoraptera not an apterous order.; Caudell, A. N.; Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash.,1920. 22: 84-97.
- Some anatomical details of the remarkable winged Zorapteron, Zorotypus hubbardi Caudell with notes on its relationships.; Crampton, G. C.; Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, 1920. 22: 98-106.
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