Taxonomic Identification Key For Preying Mantids

Help us spread the word...

This key is based on a translation of the works of Giglio-Tos and Beier. I have in general followed the classification used by Beier, and relied on Giglio-Tos to provide details missing from Beier. There are a number of important limitations:

a) The key is entirely derivative, and not based on any original observations by me. I may well have introduced errors in the translation, in addition to any errors in the original sources. There are also, of course, the underlying taxonomic difficulties.

b) The key is incomplete in the following respects:
1) It only goes to the level of genera. Sub-genera are treated as synonyms for the moment.
2) Genera described subsequent to the work of Beier, or not included in that work, are omitted.

While you’re here, don’t forget to check out our main praying mantis page.

Revisions
11 July 1996. Subfamily Mantinae included, and other subfamilies revised according to Beier’s Genera Insectorum.
21 October 1996. Minor corrections and additions. First version coded for HTML.

28 May 2020. Migrated page to new website design and consolidated 5 individual genera pages into one master mantid key page. Some of the original links have become broken in the process. You may need to manually search (Ctrl+F) for the Genus or Tribe name once you have identified it, to continue on with the key. We intend to improve the navigation of this page in the future!

Key to Families

1. Front tibia without true apical hook, tarsus articulating at tip of tibia.
Hindwing with two simple veins in crease between anal lobe and anterior part.
Front tibia and femur with bristles, thickened at base; no pronounced spines.

CHAETEESSIDAE

Front tibia with true apical hook, tarsus articulating laterally at the base.
Hindwing with one simple vein in crease between anal lobe and anterior part.
Femur (at least) has spines ventrodistally.

2

2. Body and elytra metallic green or blue/green.
Proximal external spine of anterior femur very long and stout.

METALLYTICIDAE

Body and elytra not metallically coloured.
Proximal external spine of anterior femur not significantly larger than the others.

3

3. Prothorax square, or only a little longer than broad.

4

Prothorax several times longer than broad (disregarding any lateral lobes/processes).

6

4. Front tibia without spines, or only with delicate spines ventromedially.

AMORPHOSCELIDIDAE

Front tibia with two rows of spines.

5

5. Small and delicate, both sexes usually with normal wings (female rarely brachypterous).
Anterior femur much expanded inferiorly: inferior face much wider than exterior face.

MANTOIDIDAE

Squat robust insects, both sexes brachypterous.
Inferior face of anterior femur narrower than external face.
7th abdominal sternite of female with two long spines.

EREMIAPHILIDAE

6. Ventromedial spines of anterior femur arranged with long spines separated by 3 or 4 short spines.
Antennae of male pectinate.
Vertex prolonged into a more or less conical protuberance, divided at the apex.

EMPUSIDAE

Ventromedial spines of anterior femur arranged with long spines alternating with short spines (or equal in length).
Antennae of male never pectinate.

7

7. Ventrolateral spines of anterior tibia more or less decumbent, close together and overlapping.
Tegmina often with bicoloured transverse band or spiral marking.

HYMENOPODIDAE

Ventrolateral spines of anterior tibia erect or oblique, more or less separated from one another.
Tegmina never with bicoloured markings.

MANTIDAE

Key to Subfamilies, Genera and Species

Family Chaeteessidae

single genus Chaeteessa

Family Metallyticidae

single genus Metalyticus

Family Mantoididae

single genus Mantoida

Family Amorphoscelididae

Key to subfamilies
1. Anterior tibia completely without spines apart from apical hook.
Distal segment of cerci spread out and enlarged like a leaf.
Anterior femur with 1 discoidal spine.

subfam.Amorphoscelidinae

Anterior tibia with delicate spines ventromedially, at least distally.
Distal segment of cerci not modified.
Anterior femur with 2-3 discoidal spines.

subfam.Paraoxypilinae

Subfamily Amorphoscelidinae

Key to genera
1. Pronotum of greater length than width.

genus Paramorphoscelis

Pronotum keel-shaped, of greater width than length.

2

2. Anterior femur without marginal spines.

genus Amorphoscelis

Anterior femur with 4 medial marginal spines.

genus Perlamantis

Subfamily Paraoxypilinae

Key to genera
1. Supra-anal plate of female small, transverse.

genus Sphaeromantis

Supra-anal plate of female large, carinate

2

2. Anterior coxa of both sexes spined (heavily in the female).
Female apterous.

3

Anterior coxa of female unarmed, or only lightly so.
Female winged.

4

3. Anterior border of the anterior prothoracic-coxal joint simple.

genus Paraoxypilus

Anterior border of the anterior prothoracic-coxal joint raised in a spine.

genus Myrmecomantis

4. Pronotal disc unarmed.

genus Phthersigena

synonym Glabromantis

Pronotal disc armed with points.

5

5. Superior border of anterior femur abruptly stepped before the end.

genus Metoxypilus

Superior border of anterior femur not stepped, arched.

genus Gyromantis

  • Also mentioned by Giglio-Tos: Triaenocorypha
  • Also mentioned by Beier: Nesoxypilus
  • Balderson 1984 includes Cliomantis G-Tos, but description in G-Tos has pronotum much longer than broad; ? belongs in Compsothespinae

 

 

Family Eremiaphilidae

Key to genera
Tarsal segmentation 5:5:5

genus Eremiaphila

Tarsal segmentation 4:3:3

genus Heteronutarsus

Family Empusidae

Key to subfamilies
1. Pronotum slim, always much longer than anterior coxa.
The lobe on the posterior aspect of the distal anterior coxa prolonged into a sharp spine.

subfam. Empusinae

Pronotum about the same length as anterior coxa, or only a little longer.
The lobe on the posterior aspect of the distal anterior coxa does not form a spine.

subfam. Blepharodinae

Subfamily Empusinae

Key to genera
1. Posterior four femora with dorsal preapical lobes.
Front femora expanded with a dorsal lobe.

genus Gongylus

Posterior four femora without dorsal preapical lobes.
Front femora not very expanded, the superior border straight, or almost straight.

2

2. Posterior four femora, or at least the middle femora, with lobes.

3

Posterior four femora simple, without lobes.

4

3. Geniculate spine of posterior four femora short.

genus Empusa

synonyms Phantoma Risso, Ampusa Rambur

Geniculate spine of posterior four femora long, the tip overlapping the apical lobe.

genus Hemiempusa

4. Dorsal spike of frontal sclerite curved.
The distal membranous portion of protuberance on vertex shorter than the thick basal portion.

genus Idolomorpha

Dorsal spike of frontal sclerite straight.
The distal membranous portion of protuberance on vertex longer than the thick basal portion.

genus Hypsicorypha

Subfamily Blepharodinae

Key to genera
1. Anterior coxa with broad lobe.

genus Idolum

? synonym Idolomantis Uvarov 1940

Anterior coxa without broad lobe.

2

2. Posterior 4 femora with preapical lobes.

genus Blepharopsis

synonym Blepharis Serville (non Blepharis Cuvier)

Posterior 4 femora without preapical lobes.

genus Blepharodes

synonym Phlaebarodes G-Tos

 

Family Hymenopodidae

  • Note: some disagreement as to whether Oxypilinae belongs in this family.

Key to subfamilies
1.Pronotum with a markedly toothed edge.
3rd discoidal spine of anterior femur markedly lengthened.

subfam. Oxypilinae

Pronotum with a smooth or at most slightly beaded edge.
3rd discoidal spine of anterior femur of normal length.

2

2. Frontal sclerite may have lateral tubercles, or slightly raised lateral strips, but does not have raised lateral wing-shaped keels; the central portion is not depressed;
the dorsal edge never with two small teeth.
Eyes within outline of head.

subfam. Acromantinae

Frontal sclerite with raised lateral wing-shaped keels; the central portion depressed; the dorsal edge with two small teeth.
Eyes separated from vertex by a deep ridge; bulging outside circumference of head.

subfam. Hymenopodinae

 

Subfamily Oxypilinae

Key to genera
1. Pronotum as long as anterior coxa.

genus Pseudoxypilus

Pronotum shorter than anterior coxa.

2

2. Prozone of pronotum with two conical tubercles.

3

Prozone of pronotum with four conical tubercles.

4

3. Metazone of pronotum with four tubercles.

genus Pachymantis

synonym Echinomastoharpax Werner

Metazone of pronotum with two tubercles.

genus Ceratomantis

4. Posterior femora with three tooth-shaped lobes.

genus Junodia

Posterior femora smooth.

5

5. Distal external spines of anterior femora equal in length to proximal spines.
Female apterous.

genus Oxypilus

synonym Anoxypilus G-Tos

Distal external spines of anterior femora shorter than proximal spines.
Female winged.

genus Euoxypilus

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Acromantinae

Key to tribes
1. Front femora with four outer spines.

tribe Acromantini

Front femora with 5-7 outer spines.

2

2. Front femora with 4 discoidal spines.

tribe Epaphroditini

Front femora with 3 discoidal spines.

tribe Acontistini

 
Tribe Acromantini

Key to genera
1. Eyes rounded, bulging; not cone shaped.

2

Eyes distinctly cone shaped.

15

2. Pronotum slim, distinctly longer than anterior coxa; well-defined supra-coxal bulge.

3

Pronotum squat, shorter or at most only as long as anterior coxa; poorly defined supra-coxal bulge.

13

3. Pronotal shield without tubercles.

4

Pronotal shield with cone-shaped tubercles.

12

4. Middle and posterior femora without lobes.

genus Anaxarcha

synonym Anaxandra Kirby

Middle and posterior femora with preapical lobes.

5

5. Internal apical lobes of anterior coxa adjacent.

6

Internal apical lobes of anterior coxa separated.

9

6. Vertex without tubercle above ocelli.

7

Vertex with cone-shaped tubercle above ocelli.

8

7. Elytra with finely meshed veins.

genus Heliomantis

synonyms ? Paraspilota Bolivar, Deiroharpax Werner

Elytra with widely spaced veins.

genus Oligomantis

8. Middle and posterior femora with only a single subapical lobe.
Elytra with widely spaced veins.

genus Rhomantis

Middle and posterior femora with 3 lobes.
Elytra with finely meshed veins.

genus Psychomantis

9. Anterior femora with a projecting three-cornered lobe on dorsal aspect.

genus Citharomantis

Anterior femora with dorsal border more or less bent, lamelliform, but without a
lobe.

10

10. Dorsal aspect of frontal sclerite blunt.

genus Neacromantis

Dorsal aspect of frontal sclerite three-cornered.

11

11. Vertex with at most a small tubercle above the ocelli.

genus Acromantis

Vertex with cone-shaped projection.

genus Anasigerpes

12. Anterior coxa strongly armed.

genus Ephippiomantis

Anterior coxa almost unarmed.

genus Catasigerpes

synonyms Sigerpes W-Mason (non Sigerpes Germar), Oxypiloidea Schulthess-Schindler

13. Anterior femora normal, not dilated.

genus Odontomantis

synonyms Antissa stål, Euantissa G-Tos

Anterior femora dilated with lamellae.

14

14. Pronotal disk without tubercles

genus Hestiasula

synonyms Hestias Saussure, Ephestiasula G-Tos, Catestiasula G-Tos

Pronotal disk with tubercles

genus Chrysomantis

synonym Uvaromantis (Ragge & Roy 1967, p.637)

15. Pronotum slim, longer than anterior coxa.

genus Metacromantis

Pronotum squat, shorter than anterior coxa.

16

16. Pronotal disk without tubercles.

genus Otomantis

synonym Acanthomantis Saussure & Zehntner

Pronotal disk with tubercles.

genus Anoplosigerpes

  • Included by Giglio-Tos but not Beier: AmbiviaDanuriellaPhyllothelys (? Phyllothelis, -> own subfamily)

 

Back to key to families

Tribe Epaphroditini
Key to genera
1. Eyes round. Posterior tibia with large lobes.

genus Phyllocrania

Eyes cone shaped. Posterior tibia without lobes.

2

2. Anterior femora with 7 external spines.

genus Metilia

synonym Acanthogaster Werner

Anterior femora with 5-6 external spines.

3

3. Anterior femora with 6 external spines. Pronotum not expanded with lateral lobes.

4

Anterior femora with 5 external spines. Pronotum expanded with lateral lobes.

5

4. Vertex with bifid projection above ocelli.

genus Pseudacanthops

synonym Paracanthops Saussure

Vertex without projection.

genus Acanthops

synonyms Decimia Stål (? original source for this synonymisation), Plesiacanthops Chopard

5. Hind femora with dorsal preapical lobe.

genus Antemna

Hind femora without dorsal preapical lobe.

genus Epaphrodita

  • Included by Giglio-Tos but not Beier: Parablepharis
  • Transferred here by Beier Amphecostephanus Rehn

 

Back to key to families

Tribe Acontistini
Key to genera
1. Mediastinal vein of costal area of elytra without distinct oblique branches.
External spines of anterior tibia closely packed, layered.

2

Mediastinal vein of costal area of elytra with distinct oblique branches.
External spines of anterior tibia straight, spaced.

genus Tithrone

2. Pronotum rather rounded. Wings clear or opaque, but not violet coloured.

genus Acontista

synonyms Acontistes Burmeister (non Acontistes Sundewall), Acontiothespis Hebard

Pronotum thin. Wings for the most part smoky brown with a stronger or weaker violet iridescence.

genus Acontistella

  • Included by Giglio-Tos (Beier has it as genus incerate sedis): Astollia Kirby

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Hymenopodinae

Key to genera
1. Pronotum with expanded supracoxal lateral lobes, the whole as a result cross-shaped.

2

Pronotum without markedly expanded supracoxal lateral lobes, the whole more or less oval, not cross-shaped.

6

2. Anterior femora with three discoidal spines.

3

Anterior femora with four discoidal spines.

4

3. External marginal spines of anterior femora markedly bulbous at their bases.

genus Pseudocreobotra

synonym Pseudocreobrotra Saussure

External marginal spines of anterior femora plain, not markedly bulbous at their bases.

genus Theopropus

4. Eyes pointed, cone shaped.

genus Harpagomantis

synonyms Harpax Serville, Australomantis Rehn

Eyes rounded.

5

5. Prozone of pronotum with obtuse tubercles.
Anterior femora stocky.

genus Anabomistria

Prozone of pronotum with pointed tubercles.
Anterior femora slim.

genus Chlidonoptera

synonym Bomistria Saussure

6. Anterior femora with 3 discoidal and 5 outer spines.

genus Callibia

synonym Anastira Gerstäcker

Anterior femora with 4 discoidal and 4 outer spines.

7

7. Eyes round.

8

Eyes cone shaped.

10

8. Middle and posterior femora without lobes.
Frontal sclerite with a central keel.

genus Chloroharpax

Middle and posterior femora with lobes.
Frontal sclerite smooth, without central keel.

9

9. Vertex without protuberance.

genus Propanurgica

Vertex with protuberance above ocelli.

genus Panurgica

synonym Mystipola Saussure

10. Pronotum slim, longer than anterior coxa.

genus Galinthias

Pronotum squat, shorter than anterior coxa.

11

11. Middle and posterior femora with large lobes, occupying at least half the length of the femur.
Middle and posterior femora with small preapical lobes only.

13

12. Vertex without protuberance. Eyes bluntly conical.

genus Parymenopus

synonym Parhymenopus G-Tos

Vertex with protuberance. Eyes sharply conical.

genus Hymenopus

synonym Hymenopa Serville

13. Tubercles above ocelli pointed.

genus Pseudoharpax

synonym Pseudoarpax Stål

Tubercles above ocelli blunt.

14

14. Eyes with small terminal tubercle.

genus Helvia

Eyes without terminal tubercle.

genus Creobroter

synonyms Creobotra Saussure, Creoboter Stål, Creobrotra Saussure

Family Mantidae

Key to subfamilies
1. Pronotum scalloped anteriorly, partly or completely overlapping the rear of the head. Uniformly green coloured insects.

2

Pronotum rounded anteriorly, never overlapping the rear of the head.

3

2. Pronotal margins almost parallel, not laterally expanded.

subfam. Orthoderinae

 

Pronotum markedly dilated into a rhomboidal or pentagonal shape.

subfam. Choeradodinae

3. Anterior femora with deep pit between first and second external spines, into which tibial claw fits.

4

Anterior femora without such a pit between first and second external spines.

5

4. Eyes markedly bulging, with their dorsal edges reaching at least as far and often beyond the crown of the vertex.
Uniformly brown coloured, living on bark.

subfam. Liturgusinae

Eyes nearly flat, their dorsal edges never reaching as far as the crown of the vertex. Uniformly green coloured.

subfam. Caliridinae

5. Pronotum depressed, the sides nearly parallel, or gradually widening from posterior to anterior, the anterior edge therefore at least as broad as the posterior edge; no, or only a weak, supra-coxal bulge.
Anterior tibia more or less compressed.

subfam. Tarachodinae

Pronotum more or less arched, the anterior edge not broader than the posterior edge, the supra-coxal bulge more or less marked, occasionally spread out in lobes, the sides therefore not parallel.
Anterior tibia not compressed.

6

6. Posterior tibia with dorsal keels.

subfam. Vatinae

Posterior tibia smooth, rounded.

7

7. Anterior femora with 5-7 external spines. Supra-anal plate never markedly prolonged.

8

Anterior femora with 4 external spines, exceptionally with 5, and then either the
supra-anal plate markedly prolonged, lanceolate or the hind wings vividly coloured and the legs without lobes.

9

 

8. Ventral surface of anterior femora between external and internal rows of spines flat. Pronotum not compressed, rounded dorsally. Legs never lobed. Mostly green insects.

subfam. Photininae

Ventral surface of anterior femora between external and internal rows of spines keeled. Pronotum compressed, keeled. Legs often lobed. Brown insects.

subfam. Toxoderinae

9. Anterior tibia with 1 or 2 dorsal spines distally.

10

Anterior tibia without spines on dorsal surface.

11

10. Pronotum without, or with only a delicate longitudinal keel. Female with fully developed wings. New world species.

subfam. Oligonychinae

Pronotum with a markedly raised, toothed longitudinal keel. Female brachypterous. Oriental species.

subfam. Haaniinae

11. Medial apical lobe of anterior coxa more or less expanded, lamelliform; larger than lateral lobe. Delicate and often very slender insects.

subfam. Thespinae

Medial apical lobe of anterior coxa not expanded.

12

12. Anterior femora with 1 to 3 discoidal spines.
Antennae mostly ciliated or thickened.

13

Anterior femora with 4 discoidal spines, exceptionally with 3 and then anterior tibia robustly armed and antennae neither ciliated nor thickened.

15

13. Anterior tibia without spines, apart from tibial claw.

subfam. Compsothespinae

Anterior tibia with spines in addition to tibial claw.

14

14. Small insects with thin antennae and round or bluntly conical eyes.

subfam. Iridopteryginae

Large rod-shaped insects, with strongly thickened antennae and sharply pointed conical eyes, directed anteriorly and superiorly.

subfam. Schizocephalinae

15. Brown, leaf-like insects. Pronotum with various foliaceous lateral expansions. Legs always lobed. Head without projections.

subfam. Deroplatinae

Green or brown, but never leaf-like insects. Pronotum simple or with regular but never foliaceous lateral expansions. Legs simple or lobed. Head mostly with projection.

16

16. Middle and hind femora with large lobes, extending almost the length of the limb. Head with projection on vertex.

subfam. Phyllotheliinae

Middle and hind femora simple, or at most with a small preapical lobe.

17

17. Eyes sharply conical with terminal spike, directed laterally.

subfam. Oxyothespinae

Eyes rounded or at most bluntly conical, directed superiorly.

18

18. Antennae and costal margin of elytra of male ciliated.
Small or at most medium sized insects.

subfam. Amelinae

Antennae and costal margin of elytra of male not ciliated. Mostly large insects.

19

19. Anterior tibia shortened with few spines, the claw groove in the distal half of the femur. Rod-shaped insects.

subfam. Angelinae

Anterior tibia not shortened, the claw groove in the proximal half of the femur.

20

20. Head with projection on forehead or vertex. Legs always with lobes.

subfam. Sibyllinae

Head without projection, or at most with a hump near the eye. Legs only rarely with small preapical lobes.

subfam. Mantinae

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Orthoderinae

Key to genera
1. Frontal sclerite broader than high. Eyes slightly cone-shaped, but blunt

genus Orthodera

synonym Bolidena Blanchard

Frontal sclerite higher than broad. Eyes clearly cone-shaped and somewhat tapered.

genus Orthoderina

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Choeradodinae

single genus Choeradodis

synonym Craurusa Burmeister

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Liturgusinae

Key to genera
1. Pronotum in form of heraldic shield, edges more or less dilated anteriorly.

2

Pronotum with edges parallel or convergent anteriorly.

5

2. Costal area of elytra as wide as half the discoidal area.

genus Theopompa

synonym Theopompella G-Tos

Costal area of elytra much narrower than half the discoidal area.

3

3. Edges of pronotum with spines.

genus Zouza

synonyms Jalla G-Tos, Tosa Navas

Edges of pronotum without spines.

4

4. Pronotum almost as wide as long. Female elytra very short.

genus Elaea

  • Elaea transferred to Amelinae in Ragge and Roy 1967

Pronotum much longer than wide. Female elytra at least as long as abdomen.

genus Humbertiella

synonym Theopompula G-Tos

5. 3 discoidal spines.

6

4 discoidal spines.

7

6. 4 posterior femora spined inferiorly.

genus Ciulfina

Transferred by Key 1970 to Iridopteryginae

4 posterior femora simple.

genus Stenomantis

7. Pronotal disc with markedly raised tubercles.

8

Pronotal disc without markedly raised tubercles.

11

8. Posterior femora with lobule or tooth inferiorly near tip.

9

Posterior femora simple.

10

9. Vertex without projection above ocelli.

genus Majanga

synonym Pantelica Saussure & Zehntner

Vertex with projection above ocelli.

genus Majangella

10. Internal apical lobes of anterior coxa divergent.

genus Melliera

synonym Phaeomantis Beier 1931

Internal apical lobes of coxa contiguous.

genus Mellierella

synonym Papuspilota Werner

11. Discoidal vein of wings bifurcate.

12

Discoidal vein of wings simple.

14

12. Supra-anal plate large, not transverse.

genus Gonatista

Supra-anal plate small, transverse.

13

13. Top of vertex with tubercles next to eyes.

genus Dactylopteryx

synonym Phloeomantis G-Tos

Top of vertex without tubercles.

genus Gonatistella

14. Supra-anal plate small, transverse.

genus Liturgusella

Supra-anal plate large, covering tip of abdomen.

15

15. Anterior tibia with 7-8 external spines, the sixth from the apex much longer.

genus Liturgusa

synonym Liturgousa (err. transcript.) Saussure

Anterior tibia with 8 external spines, the sixth not longer.

genus Hagiomantis

Xystropeltis Rehn 1935

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Caliridinae

Key to genera
1. Internal apical lobes of anterior coxa adjacent.

genus Deromantis

Internal apical lobes of anterior coxa divergent.

2

2. Wings clear.

genus Leptomantis

synonym Aetaella Hebard

Wings coloured.

3

3. Metazone of pronotum not conspicuously narrow.

genus Caliris

Metazone of pronotum conspicuously narrow.

genus Gildella

synonym Gilda G-Tos (non Gilda Walker)

  • Also included by Beier: Hebardia Werner, Hebardiella Werner

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Tarachodinae

Key to genera
1. Claw groove very near base of anterior femur.

2

Claw groove more or less distant from base of anterior femur.

10

2. Anterior coxa jutting out beyond posterior border of pronotum.

3

Anterior coxa not jutting out beyond posterior border of pronotum.

8

3. Eyes conical.

genus Charieis

Eyes rounded.

4

4. Anterior tibia with 8-9 external spines.

5

Anterior tibia with more than 9 external spines.

6

5. Supra-anal plate large, almost as long as broad, the tip rounded.

genus Antistia

Supra-anal plate short, transverse.

genus Ariusa

6. Anterior metatarsi and cerci cylindrical.

genus Tarachodella

Anterior metatarsi and cerci compressed.

7

7. 4 posterior femora rounded.

genus Tarachodula

4 posterior femora compressed.

genus Tarachodes

8. Top of vertex excavated, the eyes jutting out beyond the vertex.

genus Oxyopthalmellus

Top of vertex convex or flat, the eyes not jutting out beyond the vertex.

9

9. Elytra of male as long, or nearly as long, as the abdomen.
Pronotum of female without tubercles.

genus Galepsus

synonym Paragalepsus Beier

Elytra of male short, not exceeding the middle of the abdomen.
Pronotum of female with two blunt tubercles behind the supra-coxal groove.

genus Paralygdamia

10. Centre of apex of vertex prolonged in a triangular protuberance.
(Not two adjoining juxta-ocular lobes with similar appearance, c.f. Didymocorypha)

genus Pyrgomantis

Centre of apex of vertex not prolonged.

11

11. Lateral lobes of apex of vertex protruding more or less beyond the superior border of the eyes.

12

Lateral lobes of apex of vertex not protruding beyond superior border of the eyes.

13

12. Lateral lobes of vertex only protruding a little beyond the eyes.

genus Oxyophthalma

Lateral lobes of vertex protruding considerably beyond the eyes and forming a triangular process similar to Pyrgomantis but split at the tip.

genus Didymocorypha

13. Anterior femora dilated, the superior border straight or a little bowed.

14

Anterior femora thin, the superior border a little concave.

15

14. Eyes without spines.

genus Paroxyophthalmus

Eyes terminating in a long spine.

genus Episcopus

? equivalent to Beier’s Episcopomantis

15. Eyes rounded.

genus Dysaules

Eyes pointed.

genus Parepiscopus

  • Beier also includes Oxyelaea G-Tos, Pseudogalepsus Beier, Plastogalepsus Beier, Nesogalepsus Beier

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Vatinae

Key to tribes
1. Anterior coxa with distal lamelliform expansion.

tribe Danuriini

Anterior coxa without distal expansion.

2

2. Cerci compressed, foliaceous.

tribe Heterochaetini

Cerci cylindrical.

3

3. Head without projections.

tribe Stagmatopterini

Head with prolonged ocellar tubercles.

tribe Vatini

Tribe Danuriini
Key to genera
1. Anterior femora with triangular lobe on superior border before the end.

genus Popa

Probably also includes Macropopa G-Tos.
Anterior femora without lobe on superior border before the end.

2

2. Middle tibiae without inferior lobe.

genus Danuria

Middle tibiae with superior and inferior lobes.

genus Macrodanuria

Beier includes Danuriella Westw., although description in G-Tos says no coxal expansion

 

Back to key to families
 

Tribe Heterochaetini
Key to genera
1. Eyes extended into a spine

genus Heterochaeta

Eyes not extended into a spine

genus Stenovates

 

Back to key to families
 

Tribe Stagmatopterini
Key to genera
1. Eyes laterally more or less conical.

2

Eyes rounded.

5

2. Lateral borders of pronotum armed in the metazone with very long spines.

genus Catoxyopsis

Lateral borders of pronotum smooth or only slightly toothed.

3

3. Posterior femora lobed.

genus Paroxyopsis

Posterior femora not lobed.

4

4. Eyes sharp. Anterior coxa do not reach the base of the prosternum.

genus Oxyopsis

Eyes blunt. Anterior coxa reach base of prosternum.

genus Pseudoxyopsis

5. Pronotum with tubercles on the supracoxal bulge.

genus Heterovates

Pronotum without tubercles on supracoxal bulge.

6

6. Four posterior femora lobed.

genus Lobocneme

Four posterior femora not lobed.

7

7. Frontal sclerite a little broader than tall.

genus Stagmatoptera

Frontal sclerite narrowed transversely.

8

8. Pronotum about twice as long as anterior coxa.

genus Leptochoche

Pronotum not twice as long as anterior coxa.

genus Parastagmatoptera

Tribe Vatini
Key to genera
1. Anterior femora with superior preapical lobe.

genus Zoolea

Anterior femora without superior preapical lobe.

2

2. Four posterior legs lobed.

genus Vates

Four posterior legs without lobes.

3

3. Fourth abdominal segment dilated laterally in a lobe. Pronotum short.

genus Hagiotata

Fourth abdominal segment not lobed. Pronotum long.

genus Phyllovates

synonym Theoclytes Saussure

  • G-Tos also includes Pseudovates Sauss.
    Lobovates Deeleman-Reinhold 1957

Subfamily Photininae

Key to tribes
1. Anterior femora with 3 discoidal spines.

tribe Coptopterygini

Anterior femora with 4 discoidal spines.

tribe Photinini

  
Tribe Coptopterygini

Key to genera
1. First segment of tarsus of hind leg shorter than the following segments taken together. Cerci markedly elongated, compressed.

2

First segment of tarsus of hind leg at least as long as the following segments taken together. Cerci usually short, when elongated then rounded.

3

2. Conical tubercle on each side next to eye on top of vertex. Eyes small, not bulging.

genus Orthoderella

synonym Euryderes Brancsik

No tubercles next to eyes. Eyes large, protruding.

genus Paraphotina

3. Wings present in female. Frontal sclerite moderately transverse.

genus Cardioptera

Wings completely absent in female. Frontal sclerite markedly transverse.

4

4. Antennae thin, not bulbous at base. Pronotum thick, the metazone more or less as long as the anterior coxa.

genus Coptopteryx

Antennae bulbous at base. Pronotum very thin, the metazone much longer than the anterior coxa.

genus Brunneria

 

Back to key to families
 

Tribe Photinini

Key to genera
1. Frontal sclerite very transverse, forming a narrow strip.

2

Frontal sclerite less than three times as broad as high, not froming a narrow atrip.

3

2. Cerci fairly short, scarcely protruding beyond the abdomen, rounded. Anterior femur with 5 outer spines.

genus Microphotina

Cerci very long, protruding well beyond tip of abdomen, in male distally compressed in female compressed along the whole length. Anterior femur with 6 outer spines.

genus Hicetia

3. Internal apical lobes of anterior coxa adjacent.

genus Macromantis

synonym Pentacantha Stål

Internal apical lobes of anterior coxa divergent.

4

4. Costal region of elytra of male partially opaque, traversed by parallel veins but with irregular branches. Costal region of elytra of female irregularly veined. Supra-anal plate broader than long.

genus Photinella

Costal region of elytra of male hyaline, traversed by spaced parallel simple veins. Costal region of elytra of female traversed by numerous parallel veins. Supra-anal plate as long as broad.

genus Photina

synonym Metriomantis Sauss. & Zhant.

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Toxoderinae

Key to tribes
1. Anterior tibia compressed, dilated, with spines along entire length.

tribe Stenophyllini

Anterior tibia thin, with only distal spines.

Tribe Toxoderini

Tribe Stenophyllini

single genus Stenophylla

Tribe Toxoderini

Key to genera
1. Anterior coxae expanded into a lobe at their ends.

2

Anterior coxae not expanded into a lobe at their ends.

5

2. Cerci short, the end not bifid.

genus Toxoderella

Cerci long, the end bifid.

3

3. The four posterior femora without an apical spine.

genus Paradanuria

The four posterior femora with an apical spine.

4

4. Vertex simple.

genus Euthyphleps

Vertex with protuberance in the middle.

genus Toxoderopsis

5. Eyes armed with a spine on top.

6

Eyes not armed with a spine.

9

6. Cerci with bifid end.

genus Toxodera

Cerci not bifid, rounded or truncated at the end.

7

7. Four posterior femora lobed.

genus Paratoxodera

Four posterior femora without lobes.

8

8. Vertex extending beyond eyes. Posterior tibiae with keels, almost forming lobes.

genus Oestomantis

Vertex not extending beyond eyes. Posterior tibiae without keels.

genus Toxomantis

9. Vertex with single keel-shaped protuberance

10

Vertex with two spines in the middle.

11

10. Wings clear.

genus Loxomantis

Wings with smoky flecks.

genus Aethalochroa

synonym Arsacia Stål

11. Anterior femora with 5 external spines.

genus Dorymantis

Anterior femora with 6-7 external spines.

12

12. Cerci long. The lateral geniculate lobes of the middle femur long, spinous.

genus Belomantis

Cerci short, broad. The lateral geniculate lobes of middle femur short, triangular.

Genus Calamothespis

  • Beier also includes Cheddikulama Henry, Pareuthyphleps Wern.

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Oligonychinae

Key to tribes
1. Pronotum straight. Abdominal segments of female without lobe-shaped projections.

tribe Oligonychini

Pronotum bent in side-view. Abdominal segments of female with lobes.

Tribe Pogonogasterini

Tribe Oligonychini
Key to genera
1. Anterior femur with 3 discoidal spines

2

Anterior femur with 4 discoidal spines.

4

2. Vertex with protuberance below the ocelli.

genus Thesprotiella

Vertex without protuberance.

3

3. Anterior tibia with several internal marginal spines as well as the apical and the dorsal.

genus Oligonyx

synonyms Spanionyx Saussure, Harpagonyx Saussure

Anterior tibia without internal marginal spines; apical and dorsal spines only.

genus Thesprotia

4. Anterior tibia with 4-6 outer spines

5

Anterior tibia with only an apical external marginal spine.

6

5. Metazone of pronotum shorter than anterior coxa.

genus Bantia

synonyms Eubantia G-Tos, Mionicella G-Tos

Metazone of pronotum as long or longer than anterior coxa..

genus Pseudomusonia

synonyms Eumionyx G-Tos, Mionyx Saussure (non Mionyx Cope)

6. Metazone of pronotum longer or as long as anterior coxa.

genus Bactromantis

Metazone of pronotum much shorter than anterior coxa.

7

7. Supra-anal plate elongate, lanceolate.

genus Oligonicella

Supra-anal plate short, triangular.

8

8. Supra-anal plate reounded at the end.

genus Costaricella

Supra-anal plate tapered at the end.

genus Thrinaconyx

Mionycoides Rehn

 

Back to key to families
Tribe Pogonogasterini

Key to genera
1. Bifurcate frontal process present. Supra-coxal expansion of pronotum without foliaceous lateral expansions.

genus Carrikerella

No frontal process. Supra-coxal expansion with lateral foliaceous expansions.

genus Pogonogaster

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Haaniinae

Key to genera
1. 1 dorsal spine at apex of anterior tibia. Vertex below eyes without projection.

genus Parairidopteryx

synonym Astape Stål

2 dorsal spines at apex of anterior tibia. Vertex below eyes with single projection.

genus Haania

synonym Hystricomantis Werner

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Thespinae

Key to tribes
1. Anterior femur with 3 discoidal spines. Metazone of pronotum with side keels. Antenna of male not or only sparsely ciliated. Cerci flattened.

tribe Hoplocoryphini

Anterior femur with 4, rarely 3, discoidal spines. Metazone of pronotum without side keels. Antenna of male almost always ciliated. Cerci rounded.

2

2. Eyes projecting anteriorly in an obtuse cone. Antenna of male not ciliated.

tribe Parathespini

Eyes round. Antenna of male ciliated

3

3. Anterior tibia with at most 5 outer spines. Supra-anal plate always longer than broad.

tribe Thespini

Anterior tibia with more than 5 outer spines. Supra-anal plate rarely longer than broad.

tribe Pseudomiopterygini

Tribe Hoplocoryphini

Key to genera
1. Length of metazone of pronotum almost double that of anterior coxa. Antenna of female thickened at the base.

genus Hoplocoryphella

Length of metazone of pronotum less than double that of the anterior coxa. Antenna of female not thickened at the base.

genus Hoplocorypha

 

Back to key to families
 

Tribe Parathespini

single genus Parathespis

 

Back to key to families
 

Tribe Thespini

Key to genera
1. Metazone of pronotum longer than anterior coxa.

2

Metazone of pronotum as long as or shorter than anterior coxa.

4

2. Claw groove clearly distal to middle of anterior femur. Vertex between juxta-ocular projections excavated.

genus Macromusonia

synonym Catamusonia

Claw groove at most a little distal to middle of anterior femur. Vertex between juxta-ocular projections even.

3

3. Juxta-ocular projections higher than centre of vertex. Pronotum very thin.

genus Paramusonia

Juxta-ocular projections not higher than centre of vertex. Pronotum less thin.

genus Thespis

synonym Diamusonia G-Tos

4. Anterior tibia with 2-3 external spines.

genus Galapagia

Anterior tibia with 5 external spines.

5

5. Anterior coxa much longer than metazone of pronotum.

6

Anterior coxa as long or shorter than metazone of pronotum.

8

6. Supra-anal plate long, extending beyond cerci.

genus Eumusonia

Supra-anal plate short, not extending beyond cerci.

7

7. Metazone of pronotum smooth.

genus Musoniella

Metazone of pronotum with two tubercles.

genus Musoniola

8. Elytra and wings of male pointed at the end. Supra-coxal bulge strongly defined.

genus Leptomiopteryx

Elytra and wings of male rounded at the end. Supra-coxal bulge less strongly defined.

genus Musonia

synonym Promusonia G-Tos

 

Back to key to families
Tribe Pseudomiopterygini

Key to genera
1. Pronotum only a little longer than broad, certainly not twice as long as broad, shorter than anterior coxa.

2

Pronotum at least twice as long as broad, and as long as anterior coxa..

4

2. Pronotal disc smooth.

3

Pronotal disc with tubercles.

genus Pseudomiopteryx

synonym Myrcinellus G-Tos

3. Anterior tibia with 6-7 external spines.

genus Diabantia

Anterior tibia with 3-4 external spines.

genus Mantillica

4. Anterior tibia with 10 external spines. Pronotum with protuberances.

genus Anamiopteryx

Anterior tibia with at most 8 outer spines. Pronotum withour protuberances.

5

5. Inferior ocellar tubercle sharp.

genus Mantellias

Inferior ocellar tubercle blunt.

6

6. Summit of vertex bosselated and higher than eyes. Green insects.

genus Chloromiopteryx

Vertex simple, with or without juxta-ocular projections. Brown insects.

7

7. First segment of tarsus of hind leg considerably longer than the remaining segments taken together.

genus Promiopteryx

First segment of tarsus of hind leg not or only a little longer than the remaining segments taken together.

8

8. Elytra narrow.

9

Elytra broad.

10

9. Frontal sclerite markedly transverse. Supra-anal plate keeled.

genus Bantiella

Frontal sclerite less markedly transverse. Supra-anal plate not keeled.

genus Miobantia

10. Anterior tibia with 6 external spines. Prozone of pronotum expanded. Vertex with juxta-ocular projections.

genus Eumiopteryx

Anterior tibia with 7 external spines. Prozone not expanded. Vertex without juxta-ocular projections.

genus Antimiopteryx

synonym Miopteryx Saussure (non Miopteryx Blanchard)

? status of Trachymiopteryx Rehn (1920, p. 220); ? synonym of Eumiopteryx

 

Subfamily Compsothespinae

single genus Compsothespis

  • ? also including Cliomantis G-Tos.

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Iridopteryginae

 

Key to tribes
1. Claw groove approximately in middle of anterior femora.

tribe Hapalomantini

Claw groove in proximal part of anterior femora, often near the base.

2

2. Metazone of pronotum at most with a fine linear medial keel.

tribe Iridopterygini

Metazone of pronotum with a well defined and elevated medial keel.

tribe Tropidomantini

Tribe Hapalomantini

Key to genera
1. Anterior femora with 1-2 discoidal spines.

genus Tarachina

Anterior femora with 3 discoidal spines.

2

2. The fifth or sixth external marginal spine of the anterior tibia from the apex longer than the rest.

3

All the external marginal spines of the anterior tibia (with the exception of the apical) about the same length.

5

4. Vertex with rounded protuberances next to eyes. Female winged.

genus Hapalomantis

synonyms Bolbira G.-Tos, Eubolbe G.-Tos.

Vertex without juxtaocular protuberances. Female apterous.

genus Bolbe

5. Vertex with juxtaocular protuberances.

6

Vertex without juxtaocular protuberances.

7

6. Mediastinal vein of the elytra very close to the radial veins, not dividing the costal area.

genus Bolbula

Mediastinal vein of the elytra distant from the radial veins, dividing the costal area into two parts.

genus Bolbena

synonym Bolboda G-Tos.

7. Supra-coxal bulge flat but distinct. Anterior tibia with 9-11 outer spines.

genus Bolbella

Supra-coxal bulge not distinct. Anterior tibia with 8 outer spines.

genus Microbolbella

 

Back to key to families
 

Tribe Iridopterygini

Key to genera
1. Anterior femur with 5 outer spines.

genus Epsomantis

Anterior femur with 4 outer spines.

2

2. Supra-anal plate distinctly transverse.

3

Supra-anal plate not, or only a little, broader than long, mostly longer than broad. (when exceptionally transverse then the pronotum almost without a supra-coxal bulge and the first segment of the tarsus of hind leg shorter than the following segments taken together).

8

3. Anterior femur with 4 discoidal spines.

genus Nemotha

synonym Tricondylomimus Chopard

Anterior femur with 3 discoidal spines.

4

4. Wings in both sexes reduced.

genus Diacanthomantis

synonyms Pezomantis Uvarov, Muscimantis Henry

Wings in both sexes well developed, or at most reduced in female only.

5

5. Antennae not thickened.

6

Antennae thickened towards the base.

7

6. Frontal sclerite 3 times as broad as high. Anterior tibia with 7 outer spines.

genus Micromantis

Frontal sclerite 2 times as broad as high. Anterior tibia with 8-9 outer spines.

genus Iridopteryx

synonym Hapalopezella G-Tos

7. Wings in both sexes well developed. Vertex level.

genus Hapalopeza

synonym Spilomantis G-Tos

Wings reduced in female. Vertex arched.

genus Shirakia

8. Pronotal bulge strongly defined, the pronotum almost cross shaped.

9

Pronotal bulge weakly defined, the prnotum oval or flatly oval.

10

9. Anterior tibia with 7-8 outer spines.

genus Calofulcinia

synonyms Bürgersia Werner, Hedigerella Werner

Anterior tibia with 6 outer spines.

genus Rawarena
synonymised with Calofulcinia in Balderson 1981

10 Anterior tibia with 6 outer spines.

genus Ima

Anterior tibia with at least 7 outer spines (but exceptionally with 6, and then the pronotum thin and the supra-anal plate sharply three cornered, prolonged).

11

11. First segment of tarsus of hind leg shorter than the following segments taken together.

genus Papugalepsus

First segment of tarsus of hind leg at least as long as the following segments taken together.

12

12. Supra-anal plate three cornered, more or less pointed.

13

Supra-anal plate semicircular, trapezoid, not three cornered.

15

13. Cerci cylindrical. Supra-anal plate rounded at the end.

genus Sceptuchus

Cerci at least distally compressed. Supra-anal plate pointed.

14

14. Anterior tibia with 6-7 outer spines. Cerci distally compressed, the terminal segment more or less expanded, oval.

genus Nanomantis

synonyms Profulcinia G-Tos, Fulciniola G-Tos, Gyrothespis Werner

Anterior tibia with 9 outer spines. Cerci compressed along their whole length, the terminal segment pointed, not expanded.

genus Sinomantis

15. Anterior tibia with 7 outer spines.

16

Anterior tibia with 8-9 outer spines. Female apterous.

17

16. Middle ocellus of male pointed. Wings of female reduced.

genus Fulcinia

synonyms Oxyfulcinia G-Tos, Papupopa Werner

Middle ocellus of male blunt. Female apterous.

genus Tylomantis

17. Elytra of male narrow. First segment of tarsus of hind leg not twice as long as the following segments taken together.

genus Fulciniella

synonym Diafulcinia G-Tos

Elytra of male broad. First segment of tarsus of hind leg nearly twice as long as the following segments taken together.

genus Pilomantis

 

Back to key to families
 

Tribe Tropidomantini

Key to genera
1. Eyes cone shaped. Elytra narrow.

genus Nilomantis

synonyms Cryptomantis G-Tos, Ilomantis G-Tos

Eyes round. Elytra usually fairly broad.

2

2. Costal area of elytra narrow.

3

Costal area of elytra broad

5

3. Vertex with robust cone shaped juxta-ocular protuberances.

genus Kongobatha

synonym Congobatha Beier (err. impr.)

Vertex without juxta-ocular protuberances.

4

4. Costal area of elytra clear. Distal segement of cerci not modified.

genus Miromantis

synonym Ormomantis G-Tos

Costal area of elytra opaque, at least in part. Distal segment of cerci enlarged, oval, flattened.

genus Xanthomantis

synonyms Polyacanthopus Hebard, Pliacanthopus G-Tos

5. Elytra narrower than length of pronotum, the latter relatively thin.

genus Negromantis

synonyms Mimomantis G-Tos, Luteomantis Sjöstedt

Elytra at least as broad as length of pronotum, the latter compact.

6

6. Vertex even.

7

Vertex excavated or arched, not flat.

9

7. Mediastinal vein more or less distant from radial vein; transverse venules between these veins.

genus Chiromantis

Mediastinal vein adjacent to anterior radial vein; no transverse venules between these veins.

8

8. Anterior tibia with 9 outer spines.

genus Melomantis

Anterior tibia with 11 outer spines.

genus Hyalomantis

9. Anterior tibia with at least 13 outer spines.

genus Enicophlebia

Anterior tibia with at most 11 outer spines.

10

10. Vertex arched, raised above eyes.

genus Platycalymma

Vertex excavated.

11

11. Sixth outer tibial spine from the tip elongated. Elytra narrow ovals.

genus Tropidomantis

synonym Eomantis G-Tos

Sixth outer tibial spine from tip not elongated. Elytra broad ovals.

genus Neomantis

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Schizocephalinae

Single genus Schizocephala

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Deroplatinae

Key to tribes
1. Vertex with conical projection.

tribe Parablepharini

Vertex without projection.

tribe Deroplatyini

Tribe Parablepharini

Single genus Parablepharis

Tribe Deroplatyini

Key to genera
1. Eyes rounded.

genus Deroplatys

Eyes pointed.

genus Brancsikia

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Phyllotheliinae

Key to genera
1. Middle and hind tibia thickened at the base but not expanded into lobes, rounded.

genus Phyllothelis

Middle and hind tibia expanded into lobes with three keels on under surface, flattened.

genus Ceratocrania

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Oxyothespinae

Key to genera
1. Second discoidal spine of anterior femur prolonged. Wings coloured. Wings of male ciliated.

genus Heterochaetula

Discoidal spines of anterior femur of approximately equal length. Wings not coloured. Wings of male ciliated.

2

2. Pronotum more than two times as long as the anterior coxa. Subgenital plate of male without styli.

genus Acithespis

Pronotum not twice as long as anterior coxa. Subgenital plate of male with styli.

genus Oxyothespis

synonym Oxythespis

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Amelinae

Key to tribes
1. Lateral ventral edge of anterior femora smooth between the spines.

tribe Dystactini

Lateral ventral edge of anterior femora rough, or with small spines, between major spines.

tribe Amelini

Tribe Dystactini
Key to genera
1. Pronotum trefoil shaped, with sharp angles to the lateral bulges.

2

Pronotum more or less elliptical, the lateral bulges rounded.

4

2. Vertex above antennae bicornuate.

genus Achlaena

synonym Auchmomantis Werner

Vertex above antennae simple.

3

3. Prozone of pronotum with two elevated keels in front of the supracoxal groove.

genus Achlaenella

Prozone of pronotum smooth.

genus Dystacta

4. Metazone of pronotum keeled.

genus Rhachimantis

Metazone of pronotum not keeled.

5

5. Anterior tibia with 9-10 external spines.

6

Anterior tibia with 6-8 external spines.

7

6. Anterior border of elytra of male edged in white.

genus Betamantis

Anterior border of elytra of male not edged in white.

genus Chroicoptera

synonym Alphamantis Giglio-Tos

7. Some of the large preapical medial spines of the anterior femora of the male much stronger than the others.
Pronotum of female almost circular, the edges strongly spined.

genus Ligaria

synonyms Ligariella & Ligariona G-Tos, Megacanthopus Chopard

he large medial spines of the anterior femora of the male of similar robustness.
Pronotum of female much longer than wider, the border more or less toothed, not spined.

8

8. Head much longer than wider.

genus Parentella

Head much wider than longer.

genus Entella

synonyms Metentella & Micrentella G-Tos, Ommatentella Werner

Tribe Amelini

Key to genera
1. Claw-groove very deep and broad, occupying an extensive area of inner side of femur. Pronotum broadest towards anterior edge, with slight narrowing towards the posterior edge. Wings coloured.

genus Compsomantis

synonym Opsomantis G-Tos

Claw-groove normal. Pronotum broadest at supra-coxal bulge, narrowing to anterior and posterior edges. Wings not coloured.

2

2. Supra-anal plate approximately as long as broad, rather large. Costal border of elytra of male sparsely ciliated.

3

Supra-anal plate transverse, not particularly large. Costal border of elytra of male tightly ciliated.

9

3. Anterior tibia with only 4 outer spines.

genus Congomantis

Anterior tibia with at least 8 outer spines.

4

4. First segment of tarsus of hind leg not or only a little longer than following two segments taken together.

5

First segment of tarsus of hind leg distinctly longer than following two segments taken together.

7

5. Wings in both sexes completely absent.

genus Apteromantis

Wings present in both sexes, but reduced at least in the female.

6

6. Elytra of male long, normally developed.

genus Ameles

synonym Parameles Saussure

Elytra of male markedly reduced, scarcely as long as pronotum.

genus Pseudoyersinia

7. Wings in both sexes completely absent.

genus Yersiniops

Wings present in both sexes, but reduced at least in the female.

8

8. Elytra of male long, normally developed. First segment of tarsus of hind leg at least as long as the rest of the segments taken together.

genus Litaneutria

Elytra of male markedly reduced, shorter than pronotum. First segment of tarsus of hind leg shorter than the rest of the segments taken together.

genus Yersinia

9. Elytra of male very broad. Female fully winged. The two basal discoidal spines of anterior femur very small.

10

Elytra of male narrow. Female with more or less reduced wings, but not apterous. At most only the first basal discoidal spine very small.

12

10. Anterior tibia with 8 outer spines. Anterior femur markedly expanded.

genus Dystactula

synonym Dystactella G-Tos (non Dystactella Hall & Whitefield)

Anterior tibia with 7 outer spines. Anterior femur not strikingly expanded.

11

11. Antennae thickened.

genus Gonypetella

Antennae slim.

genus Telomantis

12. First segment of tarsus of hind leg longer than all the other segments taken together.

13

First segment of tarsus of hind leg shorter than all the other segments taken together.

16

13. Frontal sclerite only a little broader than high.

genus Amantis

synonym Cimantis G-Tos

Frontal sclerite transverse, considerably broader than high.

14

14. Anterior tibia with 6 outer spines.

genus Dimantis

Anterior tibia with 9-11 outer spines.

15

15. The two basal outer spines of the anterior femur very close to each other.

genus Elmantis

The two basal outer spines of the anterior femur not close to each other.

genus Gimantis

synonym Eumantis G-Tos

16. Pronotal shield with cone-shaped protuberances.

genus Myrcinus

Pronotal shield sometimes bosselated but without protuberances.

17

17. Anterior tibia with 11 outer spines.

18

Anterior tibia with 9-10 outer spines.

19

18. Wings of female scarcely reduced. Frontal sclerite markedly transverse. The two basal outer spines of anterior femur very close together.

genus Armene

Wings of female markedly reduced. Frontal sclerite only a little broader than high. The two basal outer spines of anterior femur not very close together.

genus Armeniola

19. Frontal sclerite only a little transverse, the dorsal border strongly bowed.

genus Gonypeta

Frontal sclerite markedly transverse, the dorsal border weakly bowed.

20

20. Supra-coxal bulge of pronotum scarcely distinct, the sides therefore almost parallel.

genus Haldwania

Supra-coxal bulge of pronotum clearly defined.

21

21. The two basal outer spines of the anterior femur very close to each other.

genus Memantis

The two basal outer spines of the anterior femur not close to each other.

genus Bimantis

  • Elaea transferred to Amelinae from Liturgusinae by Ragge and Roy 1967
  • Amphecostephanus Rehn transferred from here to Epaphroditini by Beier
  • Also included by Beier but not Giglio-Tos: Holaptilon Beier

 

  • Tribe unplaced: Gonypetyllis W-Mason 1891

 

Subfamily Angelinae

Key to genera
1. Cerci expanded, flattened, foliaceous.

genus Angela

Cerci rounded, not expanded.

2

2. Anterior femur with 3 discoidal spines.

genus Sinaiella

Anterior femur with 4 discoidal spines.

3

3. The first discoidal spine of anterior femora longer than the second.

genus Thespoides

The first discoidal spine of anterior femora shorter than the second.

4

4. Internal apical lobes of anterior coxae adjacent.

5

Internal apical lobes of anterior coxae divergent.

6

5. Wings of female long.

genus Mythomantis

Wings of female markedly reduced.

genus Euchomenella

synonym Tagalomantis Hebard

6. Vertex even. Supra-anal plate rounded or trapezoidal. Cerci not protruding beyond tip of abdomen.

genus Stenopyga

synonyms Phitrus Karsch, Stenopygella G-Tos, Agriomantis G-Tos

Vertex arched. Supra-anal plate triangular, pointed. Cerci mostly protruding beyond tip of abdomen.

7

7. Anterior tibia greatly reduced, the claw groove approximately at the beginning of the distal quarter of anterior femur.

genus Leptocola

Anterior tibia less markedly reduced, the claw groove approximately in the middle of the anterior femur.

genus Agrionopsis

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Sibyllinae

Key to genera
1. Posterior angles of abdominal segments prolonged into filiform lobes.

genus Presibylla

Abdominal segments simple, not prolonged into filiform lobes.

genus Sibylla

 

Back to key to families

Subfamily Mantinae

Key to tribes
1. First discoidal spine as long as second, and often longer.

tribe Archimantini

First discoidal spine shorter than second.

2

2. External border of anterior femora smooth between the spines, exceptionally toothed and then with 3 discoidal spines, otherwise 4 discoidal spines.

tribe Mantini

External border of anterior femora toothed between spines. 4 discoidal spines.

tribe Miomantini

Tribe Archimantini

Key to genera
1. Cerci cylindrical

2

Cerci flattened in a ribbon, at least distally.

3

2. Supraanal plate rounded. Anterior tibia with 9-10 outer spines.

genus Pseudomantis

synonym Austromantis Sjöstedt

Supraanal plate triangular. Anterior tibia with 7 outer spines.

genus Rhodomantis

synonym Truxomantis Sjöstedt

3. Cerci short, not prolonged beyond abdomen, only distally compressed.

genus Coenomantis

synonym Thorodia Tindale

Cerci prolonged beyond the abdomen, entirely compressed.

4

4. Mid and hind femora with single preapical lobe.

genus Austrovates

synonym Heterarchimantis Werner

Mid and hind femora simple.

5

5. Eyes rounded

genus Archimantis

synonym Rheomantis G-Tos

Eyes in the form of a blunt cone.

genus Nullabora

 

Back to key to families
 

Tribe Mantini

Key to genera
1. External border of anterior femora toothed between spines. 3 discoidal spines.

genus Omomantis

External border of anterior femora smooth between spines. 4discoidal spines.

2

2. Discoidal area and, to a lesser extent, costal area of wings with black or red bands.

3

Wings never with black or red bands in discoidal and costal areas.

6

3. Inner apical lobes of anterior coxa contiguous.

genus Plistospilota

Inner apical lobes of anterior coxa divergent.

4

4. Tip of discoidal area of wings traversed by numerous parallel tightly packed sigmoidal veins.

genus Polyspilota

Tip of discoidal area of wings without tightly packed sigmoidal veins.

5

5. Metazone of pronotum shorter than anterior coxa.

genus Prohierodula

Metazone of pronotum at least as long or much longer than anterior coxa.

genus Cataspilota

synonym Calospilota G-Tos

6. First segment of tarsus of hind leg at most as long as the three following segments together.

7

First segment of tarsus of hind leg as long or longer than all remaining segments together.

9

7. Inner apical lobes of anterior coxa divergent.

genus Oromantis

synonym Uromantis G-Tos

Inner apical lobes of anterior coxa contiguous.

8

8. Mid and hind legs conspicuously short.

genus Phaeomantis

Mid and hind legs normal.

genus Stagmomantis

synonyms Stauromantis G-Tos, Auromantis G-Tos

9. Metazone of pronotum clearly shorter than anterior coxa.

10

Metazone of pronotum roughly as long or longer than anterior coxa.

11

10. Wings clear.

genus Palaeophotina

Wings smoky brown.

genus Pictomantis

11. Claw-groove in middle or distal half of anterior femur.

12

Claw-groove in proximal half of anterior femur.

18

12. Wings of female markedly shortened.

13

Wings of female well developed, or only a little shortened.

14

13. Cerci simple.

genus Tauromantis

Cerci compressed.

genus Phasmomantis

14. Eyes in the form of a blunt cone.

genus Mesopteryx

Eyes rounded.

15

15. Claw-groove in distal part of anterior femur.

genus Statilia

Claw-groove in middle of anterior femur.

16

16. Mid and hind femora with apical spine.

genus Tenodera

synonyms Paratenodera Rehn, Epitenodera G-Tos

Mid and hind femora without apical spine.

17

17. Inner face of anterior coxa with one basal non-callous spot.

genus Mantis

Inner face of anterior coxa with several callous spots.

genus Paramantis

Roy, 1967, p. 134

18. Inner apical lobes of anterior coxa divergent.

genus Bisanthe

Inner apical lobes of anterior coxa contiguous.

19

19. Frontal sclerite fairly markedly transverse.

genus Notomantis

Frontal sclerite not or only a little transverse.

20

20. Wings of female with transverse yellow band in discoidal area.

genus Isomantis

Wings of both sexes of uniform colour, clear or smoky brown.

21

21. Sides of pronotum strongly toothed.

genus Alalomantis

Sides of pronotum at most very finely toothed.

22

22. Costal area of elytra with widely meshed veins.

23

Costal area of elytra with very fine, densely meshed veins.

24

23. Metazone of pronotum simple.

genus Hierodulella

Metazone of pronotum with lamellar expansions.

genus Pnigomantis

24. Discoidal area of elytra completely clear.

genus Tarachomantis

Discoidal area of elytra opaque, at least in the costal edge.

25

25. Frontal sclerite not transverse.

genus Hierodula

synonyms Rhombodera Burmeister, Sphodromantis Stal, Rhomboderella G-Tos, Parhierodula G-Tos, Rhomboderula G-Tos, Ephierodula G-Tos, Camelomantis G-Tos, Tamolanica Werner, Zopheromantis Tindale

Frontal sclerite clearly transverse.

genus Tisma

 

Back to key to families
 

Tribe Miomantini

 

Key to genera
1. Anterior femur with 5 outer spines.

2

Anterior femur with 4 outer spines.

3

2. Very thin insects. Supra-anal plate very long, lanceolate.

genus Ischnomantis

Normally proportioned insects. Supra-anal plate not prolonged, scarcely longer than broad.

genus Iris

3. Mid and hind femora with large preapical lobes.

genus Phyllomantis

Mid and hind femora simple.

4

4. First segment of tarsus of hind leg at most as long as the next three segments taken together.

5

First segment of tarsus of hind leg roughly as long or longer than all the remaining segments taken together.

8

5. Anterior tibia with 8-14 outer spines.

6

Anterior tibia with 7 outer spines.

7

6. Inner apical lobes of anterior coxa contiguous.

genus Trachymantis

Inner apical lobes of anterior coxa divergent.

genus Sphodropoda

synonym Ngawala Tindale

7. Dorsal border of anterior femur straight.

genus Parasphendale

synonym Carvilia Kirby

Dorsal border of anterior femur distally curved, with lamellar expansion.

genus Cilnia

synonym Leomantis Rehn

8. Metazone of pronotum considerably longer than anterior coxa.

9

Metazone of pronotum at most just a little longer than anterior coxa.

12

9. Supra-anal plate markedly prolonged, lanceolate.

10

Supra-anal plate not prolonged, transverse.

11

10. Hind tibia with small spines inferiorly.

genus Eremoplana

Hind tibia without small spines inferiorly.

genus Solygia

11. Apical lobe of wing prolonged, extending well beyond anal lobe.

genus Euchomena

Apical lobe of wing not prolonged.

genus Deiphobella

12. Wings completely absent (may have reduced elytra).

13

Wings normally developed or shortened, but never completely absent.

14

13. Anterior tibia with 7-8 outer spines.

genus Geomantis

Anterior tibia with 6 outer spines.

genus Geothespis

14. Hind tibia without small spines inferiorly, only bristles.

15

Hind tibia with small spines inferiorly.

20

15. Supra-anal plate longer than broad.

16

Supra-anal plate transverse.

17

16. Anterior tibia with 7 outer spines.

genus Miomantis

synonym Calidomantis Rehn, Oreomantis Uvarov

Anterior tibia with 10 outer spines.

genus Callimantis

17. Costal area of elytra of female expanded, broader than half the discoidal area.

18

Costal area of elytra of female not expanded, thinner than half the discoidal area.

19

18. Wings of female with transverse yellow bands.

genus Paracilnia

synonym Zulumantis Sjöstedt

Wings of female clear.

genus Taumantis

19. Pronotal disc with granulations.

genus Arria

Pronotal disc without granulations.

genus Neocilnia

20. Supra-anal plate transverse.

21

Supra-anal plate longer than broad.

24

21. Inner apical lobes of anterior coxa divergent.

22

Inner apical lobes of anterior coxa contiguous.

23

22. Anterior tibia with 6 outer spines.

genus Carvilia Stål

Anterior tibia with 8-9 outer spines.

genus Bolivaria

23. Metazone of pronotum scarcely twice as long as the prozone.

genus Pararivetina

Metazone of pronotum at least three times as long as the prozone.

genus Pseudempusa

24. Anterior tibia with 7-8 outer spines.

25

Anterior tibia with 9-10 outer spines.

26

25. Claw-groove in proximal part of anterior femur.

genus Rivetina

synonyms Fischeria Saussure, Eufischeriella G-Tos

Claw-groove in middle of anterior femur.

genus Deiphobe

synonym Sphendale Stål

26. Wings of male long, longer than the abdomen.

genus Microthespis

Wings of male short, shorter than the abdomen.

genus Teddia

  • Also included by G-Tos: Severinia
  • Beier has Gretella Werner as genus incertae sedis
  • Indothespis Werner, Beesoniella Werner

 

Help us spread the word...

Leave a Reply